The world has many natural systems that are so complex to be understood easily. This creates a need to have simple principles or systems that capture the complexity of the world. The simple systems make it easier for many people to understand the world by representing the complex world in a more straightforward way (Stefan, 2003). Many objects and projects are seen to be a network of processes or substances. Graphs and networks have been used widely in different projects for different reasons by project managers mostly. There are techniques such as critical path analysis that make use of graphs and networks and are applied by project managers and all the staff involved in projects. These methods are used to ensure smooth planning and control of projects. However, the techniques have to be applied correctly to achieve the desired objective. This paper looks at the impact of graphs and networks in minimizing the costs of a project or product. From this research, it can be inferred that the techniques such as critical path method, that make use of graphs and networks, play a significant role in determining and hence reducing the product cost. This is done by making the right decisions regarding the resources and time most appropriate for a project. The paper shows clearly how these techniques are applied in a project to determine project duration and hence minimize the cost.
Organizational cynicism is a relatively new concept to be discussed in the area of business administration; while it has a historical background, different dimensions, various reasons and results. Although many employees are experiencing cynicism, they are not aware about the exoerience, since cynicism is not well-known and well-defined concept in minds. This study is aiming to understand what cynicism is about by drawing a brief evaluation and analysis.
Education is the key that unlocks opportunities in every human being’slife as it creates a non-imitableresource. It is universally believed that the only inheritance one can leave for their off springs is education. This throws to the limelight, themain driver behind this crucial resource: the teacher. The background of the study highlights the declining trend in teacher retention and consequently a shrinking teacher workforce particularly in secondary schools.The objectives of the study were: to explain the background of teacher turnover, establish teacher turnover rate in a period of 1-10 years in Nyeri County, identify major push and pull factors in the teaching profession in Nyeri County and recommend strategies that can be used to retain teachers in Nyeri County. Literature reviewed brought to fore certain characteristics associated with recruitment. The study is based on Hertzberg’s two factor theory which distinguishes the hygiene factors as the most crucial in teacher motivation as opposed to motivational factors. The study findings highlight a myriad of pull and push factors impacting teacher turnover chief among them as teachers’ teachers’ pay, with other underlying factors like job dissatisfaction, work environment, reward system, work overloads, resource provision, professional training and development and promotions.The study recommends that teacher motivational sessions be organized, teacher facilitation be effected and rewarding, recognition of teacher effort and formulation of attractive teacher retention policies by the government.
A cross section of operating banking organisations within the geographical enclave Port Harcourt, Rivers State was covered during the course of this study. Respondents were drawn from five of the conveniently sampled banks based on their proximity. Therefore the individual unit of analysis was adopted however, their choice was cross-sectionally non- contrived. The population of the study comprises of all employees of the banks in which a total off 252 employees were drawn using the using YaroYameni sampling formula. The Pearson product moment correlations coefficient statistical tool was used in the respondents’ data analysis and the findings enhanced the recommendation that banking industry should make active use of human asset maintenance management factors such as constant career development programmes through training and development, motivation, health & safety program and coaching & supervision to improve their productivity. Indeed, human asset maintenance management factors have influential relationship on customer satisfaction and customer’s retention which are measures of employees performance in the banking industry so studied.
Land is the basis of all economic activity. It is the most important asset in an agrarian economy like India where majority of the population in rural areas are dependent on agriculture, labour and animal husbandry. This paper deals with an important form of discrimination in the countryside, the lack of access of Dalit (Scheduled Caste) and Adivasi (Scheduled Tribe) households to ownership and operational holdings of land in rural India. It includes a study of the impact of land reforms in India on land holding among Dalit and Adivasi households. The working paper titled “Social inequality and land holding for dalit in India” discusses the different dimensions that have a bearing on the issue of inequality in land distribution in India . The SCs and STs who have been historically out of the main stream development initiatives, partly due to the still continuing socio cultural barriers and partly due to the inadequacy of the Government programmes in reaching this disadvantage group. However the paper argues that An Overview of land holding for dalit: Past and Present, Status of land for dalit in India , Historical view of Land Distribution Pattern and Economic Conditions of Dalits In this context, an attempt has been made in this paper to examine Dalits‟ access to land in India during pre and post independence periods. And it also an attempt to assess the impact of land reforms on land ownership by Dalits in India.
The focus of this paper is on the what, why, and how of gender, sexuality, and HIV/AIDS and is limited to issues related to the heterosexual transmission of HIV because that has been the the most common transmission HIV for women since the emergence of the epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa and particularly amongst poor rural women which has been the focus of my work over the last decade. We recognize that heterosexual transmission is only one aspect of the epidemic, but it is by no means irrelevant since the most recent statistics show that heterosexual transmission of HIV remains by far the most common mode of transmission not only in Africa but globally Gupta (2000). We have known for at least a decade that gender and sexuality are significant factors in the sexual transmission of HIV, and we now know that they also influence treatment, care, and support Gupta, (2000) Hussayn (2016,2017). Both terms, nevertheless, continue to remain misunderstood and inappropriately used.
Drawing upon research undertaken with community development practitioners in the North Central of Nigeria, this article argues that feminist community development processes have been undermined by the application of policy initiatives which were designed to achieve equality and fairness. The application of targeted and technically neutral systems has resulted in a managerialist approach to community development which has privileged masculinist practices and marginalized the intersubjective, consciousness-raising practices which are central to feminism. The consequence is that the broader emancipatory principles of community development practice have been distorted within a policy discourse of equality.
The development and usage of ICT technologies is increasing every day. Nowadays, ICT technologies are being used in almost every industry and lately, especially rapidly in sports. Information related to sport events and sport participants are recorded in a database, which thus enables computer analysis. This paper presents information system Basketball Coach Assistant. The paper presents current version of information system and describes the possibilities of the information system, starting with the architecture up to the individual parts of the information system. The paper also explains a display of a custom menu and user-defined player efficiency index.