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Volume 5 ISSUE 6 (November-December 2021)

  • Effect of logistics on supply chain performance in private pharmaceutical sector in Rwanda. Case of pharmaceutical wholesales-Nyarugenge District
    Original Research Article
    Country Rwanda
  • Pages 01-06
  • Dieudonné NZEYIMANA
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • Pharmaceutical supply chain is a key pillar of a successful healthcare system and logistics is a cornerstone of strong supply chain where Private sector contributes enormously. Though the private pharmaceutical sector is a key pillar of the healthcare system in Rwanda, few or no studies have assessed the quality of the practices in the sector. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of logistics on the performance of the supply chain in private pharmaceutical sector in Rwanda. A cross-sectional study design was adopted. A questionnaire was used and data was analyzed using inferential statistics. The results of the study revealed logistics to be a predictor of supply chain performance in private pharmaceutical supply chain in Rwanda and for 1-unit increase in logistics performance there is 0.48-unit increase in Supply chain performance. The findings revealed a positive and statistically signification relationship between transportation and supply chain performance (B=0.705, p<0.005). Finally, they showed that inventory management, warehousing and information sharing have a positive but no statistical significant relationship with supply chain performance. More studies are needed to back our findings and a continuous professional development of pharmacists in the area of logistics for better decision taking is recommended.


    • Davao City, Philippines as MICE Destination
      Original Research Article
      Country Philippines
    • Pages 07-21
    • Kymwell R. Hinlayagan || Kiven G. Olivar
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The purpose of this study was to determine Davao City, Philippines as a Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions (MICE) destination. The research utilized qualitative and quantitative approach. The data were obtained from the delegates of MICE. Adopted and self-made questionnaire was used in this study. The level of satisfaction of delegates in Davao City as MICE is highly satisfied. This means that majority of the respondents were able to have a great experience during the event. Moreover, there is no significant difference in the level of satisfaction on the respondents when analyzed according to the sex, age and civil status, while there is a significant difference in terms of educational attainment. This means that the satisfaction of the MICE delegates may differ depending on their educational attainment. On the other hand, there is a significant difference in the level of satisfaction on Davao City as a MICE destination under reliability, empathy, and tangibles. While there is no significant difference in the level of satisfaction on Davao City as a MICE destination under responsiveness and assurance.


    • The Mediating Effect of Quality Delivery on the Relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty of Three Star Hotels
      Original Research Article
      Country Philippines
    • Pages 22-37
    • Kiven G. Olivar
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • This study aimed to investigate the mediating effect of quality delivery on the relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty of three-star hotels of 300 customers in Davao City, Philippines. This study employed non-experimental design utilizing descriptive correlation technique. The statistical tools used were mean, Pearson r, regression technique, and medgraph using Sobel z-test. Research instruments on quality delivery, customer satisfaction and loyalty which were pilot tested, and content validated were used as sources of data. Using Pearson r, the results revealed significant relationships between quality delivery, customer satisfaction, and loyalty of three-star hotels in Davao City. Utilizing medgraph Sobel z-test, the results of the study revealed partial mediating effect of quality delivery on the relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty of three-star hotels. This implies that the mediating role played by quality delivery assisted in clarifying the process that was responsible for the relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty of three-star hotels.


    • The Ideologies of Hegel, Marx, Lenin, Popper, Huntington, Fukuyama, Hayek, Friedman - in Favor of The Deep Mafia for the Enslavement of Nations, Peoples
      Original Research Article
      Country Bulgaria
    • Pages 38-63
    • Momtchil Dobrev-Halachev || Mariola Garibova- Dobreva || Momtchil Dobrev’s “MAFIOTISMUS”
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • Lord prof PhD PhD Momtchil Dobrev-Halachev developed 2010 “Financially banking resource-based technological mafia-driven materialism” as a based principle materialismus since more than 17 century.08 “Theory of generating of crises”, 2010 “Theory and praxice of the Mafiotismus ”And 2001“ Theory of the mafia ”. Based on these two theories this paper explains the establishment of mafiotismus all over the world - principles, theory and praxis we prove with the guiding article that these are the ideologies of the Deep Mafia.


    • Effect of Procurement Planning on Performance of Public Institutions in Rwanda: Case of Kicukiro District
      Original Research Article
      Country Rwanda
    • Pages 64-69
    • Julius Higiro
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • Rwanda public procurement requires public institution to prepare procurement plan before awarding tenders.When procurement plan is not done accurately, the performance will also be affected hence affecting the best achievement of value for money.This study aimed to ascertain the effect of procurement planning on performance of public institutions in Rwanda a case of Kicukiro District.The study adopted explanatory research design while the study population constituted 258 employees. The findings indicated that identification of needs is a key indicator in enhancing performance of public institutions. As evidenced from the findings, the researcher concluded that there is a strong positive relationship between identification of needs and tendering methods on the performance of public institutions.The study recommends that tendering methods is not static and that preparation of tendering methods should be done by identifying needs, establishing tendering method, estimate the budget and participation of user department so as to improve Kicukiro District’s performance.


    • Effect of Credit Management on Profitability of Selected Commercial Banks in Rwanda
      Original Research Article
      Country Rwanda
    • Pages 70-74
    • Mwizerwa Isaac
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • Banking sector in Rwanda has faced various challenges that include non-performing loans and fluctuations of interest rate among others, which have threatened the bank stability. Credit management is important to bank management because banks are risk machines they take risks; they transform them and embed them in banking products and services. Risks are uncertainties resulting in adverse variations of profitability which shows the performance or in losses that show the bank’s failure. The main aim of the study was to assess the effect of credit management on profitability of commercial banks. The findings revealed that client appraisal affects the bank profitability because the bank before loans to borrowers they make sure that make an assessment of that borrower to will be able to pay back the loan through collateral, capacity, capital, character and conditions. The study concluded that client appraisal affect the profitability commercial banks. The study concluded that there is a strong positive link between that credit management and profitability of selected commercial banks in Rwanda.The study therefore recommends an appropriate value at risk model for credit risk management. Banks needs to put in place rigorous measures to ensure that collateral are well assessed so that in case the borrowers are not able to repay the loans the bank recover the money lost from the collateral provided by borrowers.


    • Services Quality management for Outpatient Satisfaction in Indonesia
      Original Research Article
      Country Indonesia
    • Pages 75-81
    • Dian Indriana Hapsari
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • This study was aimed to examine whether reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and physical evidence in providing services took effect on outpatient satisfaction in private hospitals in Surakarta, Indonesia. This research instrument was in the form of a SERVQUAL instrument in the form of a questionnaire based on five quality dimensions. The SERVQUAL measuring instrument was adopted from Parasuraman which was later modified according to the nature of services available in private hospitals in Surakarta, which consists of five dimensions, namely responsiveness, tangibles, reliability, assurance, and empathy. The results of regression analysis in this study indicate that the five dimensions of service quality consisting of tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy have a significant effect on customer’s (outpatient) satisfaction of private hospitals in Surakarta, both individually and collectively. This was indicated by the significance of both t-value and f-value of 0,000 which is smaller than 0.05.


    • Effect of Loan Management Strategies on Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Rwanda
      Original Research Article
      Country Rwanda
    • Pages 82-86
    • Nderekanye Nuhu
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • Despite the efforts done by Commercial banks in ensuring that all loans are recovered on time, a substantial amount of these loans remain un-recovered. This problem does not only endanger the achievement of objectives, but also threaten bank’s sustainability and efficiency. Therefore, there is a need of an effective loan management where loans should be very well managed to minimize potential risks that may affect the bank’s performance.The study examined the effect of loan management strategies on financial performance of selected commercial banks in Rwanda. The study adopted descriptive research design. The study findings revealed client appraisal had a positive influence which was statistically significant (β = 0.399, p<0.05) while loan risk control showed a positive and significant effect (β = 0.204; p<0.05) on financial performance of commercial banks. The study concluded that there was a strong positive link between predictor variables andfinancial performance of selected commercial banks in Rwanda. The findings have revealed that loan management strategies help to improve financial performance and to achieve objective of bank.


    • Effect of Accounting Practices on Financial Performance of Small Medium Enterprises in Rwanda
      Original Research Article
      Country Rwanda
    • Pages 87-96
    • Kuol Gabriel Wach || Dr.Thomas Tarus
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The overall objective of this study is to investigate how poor record keeping can cause the negative failure of SMEs in Musanze District of Rwanda; to evaluate the extent to which low level of budgeting techniques can lead to poor ability of SMEs expansion in the particular area. The study adopted a case study research design to enhance an in depth investigation of the targeted population of the SMEs residents in Musanze District, Northern province, Rwanda. 60 respondents were arrived at using proportionate stratified. The study gathered primary data through open and closed end questionnaires. Over 70 Questionnaires were distributed to 60 SMEs owners out of which 60 questionnaires were valid and analyzed using Likert scale. To point out on how record keeping can be very vital to SMEs, it is good because it helps SMEs to achieve her goals and objectives and on other hand a lot of SMEs owners in Musanze lack accounting skills, they keep their record manually thus no accounting system they were using. The researcher recommended that SMEs owners in Musanze District should try to buy latest software for keeping records in their firms and hence equipping themselves with essential managerial skills which are necessary for the expansion of SMEs.


    • The Mediating Effect of Service Quality in Relation to Corporate Social Responsibility and Customer-Based Brand Equity
      Original Research Article
      Country Philippines
    • Pages 97-107
    • Dave Kevin P. Cabrillos
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The primary goal of this research was to investigate the role of service quality in mediating the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and customer-based brand equity (CBBE) in tourism businesses in the Davao Region. The study utilized the quantitative non-experimental descriptive and correlational research design. There were 176 tourism enterprises surveyed for the independent variable of CSR determined by proportionate stratified sampling. Meanwhile, 384 tourists were also surveyed for the mediator variable of Service Quality and the independent variable of CBBE derived through snowball sampling. Google forms were employed to gather the primary data on the three variables of the study. The multiple regression analysis indicated that CSR predicted CBBE, CSR predicted Service Quality, and combined CSR and Service Quality statistically predicted CBBE. In the relationship between CSR and CBBE, the mediation study revealed partial mediation of Service Quality. The Medgraph pathway illustrated that Service Quality intervened with the effects that CSR had on CBBE. Service Quality statistically significantly reduced the total effect of CSR on CBBE. Thus, not only should CSR be improved, but Service Quality also needs to be enhanced for Davao Region to become a top tourism destination in the Philippines and Southeast Asia.


    • The Effect of Information Sharing, Decision synchronization, and Incentive Alignment on Inter-Organizational Trust
      Original Research Article
      Country Indonesia
    • Pages 108-115
    • Zainuddin Latuconsina
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • This research aims to analyze the effect of information sharing, decision synchronization, and incentive alignment on inter-organizational trust. Data analysis technique uses Partial Least Square. Respondents in this research are general managers, owners, board of directors, and administrative staffs of the companies, especially those related to supplier-retailer or retailer-supplier relationships in Ambon City, with a total of 51 people. The results show that information sharing has an effect on inter-organizational trust. Decision synchronization has no effect on inter-organizational trust. Incentive alignment also has an effect on inter-organizational trust.


    • Audit opinion of KAP Reputation and Company age on Audit Delay
      Original Research Article
      Country Indonesia
    • Pages 116-122
    • Saekarini Yuliachtri || Muhammad Ridho || Welly || Darma Yanti
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The formulation of the problem in this research identified how were the influence of audit opinion, KAP reputation, and company age, on audit delay. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of audit opinion, KAP reputation, and company age on audit delay. The type of research used is associative. The data used is secondary data. The sample this research was from the annual report of real estate and property companies in 2017-2019 as many as 105. The data collection technique is documentation. The data analysis method in this research is quantitative. The results of this study were assisted by the Statistical Program for Special Science (SPPS). The results show that the effect of audit opinion, KAP reputation, and company age, together have an effect on audit delay. Partially, the audit opinion has no effect on audit delay.


    • Effect of Firm Characteristics on Financial Performance amongListed Companies at Rwanda Stock Exchange, Rwanda
      Original Research Article
      Country Rwanda
    • Pages 123-129
    • Chartine Umutesi || Thomas Tarus
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • Listed firms in Rwanda are expected to perform well financially considering that they are few and the environment for business is conducive. Whilst, there is empirical evidence on firm characteristics and profits of firms on a global and regional perspective, it appears that there are few that have focused on listed companies in Rwanda. Therefore, the study seeks to establish effect of firm characteristics on financial performance among listed companies at the Rwanda Stock Exchange, Rwanda. The study was anchored on Markowitz’s Modern Portfolio while the population was all listed entities in RwandaStock Exchange. The findings revealed that liquidity had a negative and significant effect on financial performance while capital adequacy had a positive and significant effect on financial performance. The study concluded that liquidity has a negative and significant effect on financial performance. Also capital adequacy is crucial as it shows the extent to which operations can be funded using internal sources of capital.The study recommends that listed entities should have adequate capital as this was found to be a major determinant of financial performance. Also, firms should keep low liquidity as it was found out that an increase in liquidity does not favour firm performance.


    • Loan Portfolio Management and Performance of Financial Institutions in Rwanda
      Original Research Article
      Country Rwanda
    • Pages 130-134
    • Seraphine Uwimabera
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • Lending is the principal business activity for most commercial banks. The loan portfolio is typically the largest asset and the predominate source of revenue. The main purpose of the study was to examine the relationship loan portfolio management and performance of financial institutions in Rwanda. The study was anchored on Modern Portfolio Theory and Customer-Supplier Relationship Theory. The study used descriptive design in providing an in-depth study and analysis. The findings indicated that portfolio planning is a key indicator in enhancing performance of financial institutions. As evidenced from the findings, the study concluded that there is a strong positive relationship between portfolio planning and clients screening on the performance of financial institutions. The study recommends that clients need to be trained on how financial institutions work; there is still a need in establish proper methods in approaching clients by increasing agents and number of branches as some financial institutions are located away from rural areas and are only accessible in urban centers. There is still a need in sensitizing citizens on how loans work, and expose them to the most factors that could lead to loss in case someone asked for a loan. There is still a need in collaborating between different financial institutions to avoid confusion regarding financial policies in Rwanda.


    • Teachers' Well-Being as Predictor of Job Satisfaction Among DepEd Teachers
      Original Research Article
      Country Philippines
    • Pages 135-144
    • Joann M. Onlos
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • Educator job satisfaction has been identified as exceptionally vital in teachers' well-being and implementing any education transformation, including the teacher in life-lengthy learning, the value of the instruction-learning process, and general satisfaction with life. The disturbing note is that many of today's teachers are displeased with their employment. Nevertheless, there is a common feeling that teachers nowadays are not happy with their jobs. The main objective of this study was to determine which domain of teachers’ well-being significantly predicts job satisfaction among DepEd teachers. This study employed a quantitative, non-experimental research design utilizing the causal-effect technique. A total of 204 elementary public teachers were surveyed. The study revealed that a very high level, both in teacher's well-being and job satisfaction, was interpreted as very much manifested. It further revealed that teachers' well-being significantly predicts job satisfaction of DepEd teachers. In addition, there is a significant relationship between the well-being of teachers and job satisfaction. Indeed, the well-being of teachers generates job satisfaction. It suggests that programs be implemented by the Department of Education that can offer additional relevant information on job satisfaction that will serve as a framework for policymaking and improvement initiatives and interventions to enhance the well-being of teachers.


    • The Effect of Transfer Pricing Aggressiveness and Thin Capitalization on Tax Avoidance
      Original Research Article
      Country Indonesia
    • Pages 145-151
    • Purwantoro
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • Tax avoidance is a company's effort to find loopholes in tax rules and regulations so that the amount of tax paid is lower. In practice, companies can use transfer pricing and thin capitalization options as an effort to reduce the tax burden. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of transfer pricing and thin capitalization on tax avoidance. Tax avoidance as the dependent variable, transfer pricing and thin capitalization as independent variables. The population used in this study are all consumer cyclicals companies listed on the IDX for the 2017-2019 period. The sample in this study were 32 companies from the total123 consumer cyclicals companies. The sampling technique was selected by purposive sampling method. The data source used is secondary data. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis with the help of SPSS version26.The results of this study indicate that thin capitalization has an effect on tax avoidance while transfer pricing has no effect on tax avoidance.


    • Public Diplomacy in Poland’s Re-Branding Effort by Institute of Adam Mickiewicz (IAM) Through Polska Brand
      Original Research Article
      Country Indonesia
    • Pages 152-160
    • M. Daris Tantowi Ikram || Agus Sudarya || Anton Iman Santosa
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The article provides an overview of national image, national brand and national branding, then presents selected campaigns promoting Poland in the international arena. Promotion, brand, image and public opinion are the most important notions in the Polish approach to the use of soft power means in international relations. It is only in recent years that public diplomacy gained more attention and became the most important tool for managing Polish soft assets through coordinating cultural diplomacy and international branding and by frequently pairing with economic diplomacy.This qualitative research analyzed by using Contructivism perspective by Stefano Guzzini on International Relations and supported by Public Diplomacy theory by Joseph Nye. This study showedthe year 2004 was significant for Polish efforts in rebranding the country. A coherent message about Poland and their influence on the current strategy for promoting the Polska brand through cultural diplomacy. The critical analysis places the Institute’s activities in the context of the priorities of Polish foreign policy and puts forward a thesis on the growing influence of the Institute on the development of Polish culture, Polish cultural diplomacy, and nation branding in Poland.


    • Literature Review on Thesis Entitleda Critical Assessment of Social Media as a New Marketing Communication Media in the Financial Sector in Zimbabwe
      Original Research Article
      Country Zimbabwe
    • Pages 161-174
    • Enesiti Chirume || Nyasha Kaseke
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • This article reviews related literature to the first author‟s current study entitled “A Critical Assessment of Social Media as a New Marketing Communication Media in the Financial Sector in Zimbabwe.”The whole essence of this paper is to present literature review onanassessment of social media as a new marketing communication media in the financial sector in Zimbabwe. In order to gain understanding of social media as a new marketing communication media, the researchers review a range of domestic and international literature sources. The review touches on -a brief history of social media. It goes on to look at the available literature on the forms of social media, as a new marketing communication media as well as its impact and functions as a new communication media. Thereview further deals with the challenges and opportunities on usage of social media as a new marketing communication media and finally, a deeper understanding of social media‟s future potential implications and future lessons about this new phenomenon. While the literature identifies the darker side of social media, overwhelming evidence in the review literature points to the need for financial institutions to embrace social media as a new marketing communication tool. The review identifies a gap in that most of the studies on social media usage base on individual views and most of these studies come from developed economies and tend to concentrate much on large financial institutions. Not many studies have examined the actual impact of social media as a new communication tool on performance of the financial sector in Zimbabwe. The review fills this gap.


    • Forecast Models for Urban Extreme Temperatures
      Original Research Article
      Country India
    • Pages 175-178
    • Laxman Basnet
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The climatic signature of global warming is both local and global. The forcing by increasing greenhouse gases is global, so there is clearly a global component to the climatic signature. Moreover, the damaging impacts of global warming are manifesting themselves around the world in the form of extreme weather events like storms, tornadoes, floods and droughts, all of which have been escalating in frequency and intensity. Furthermore, it is a well-known fact that there is high degree of uncertainty surrounding projections of basic climate variables, such as temperature and precipitation. However, numerous authors have explored many of these effects individually and have begun exploring the interactions between climate change-induced impacts in different sectors of urban activities. Therefore, it is safe to say that an attempt to conduct a definitive, comprehensiveanalysis of all the potential impacts of climate change on the urban structure is premature at present. This communication attempts to examine the trends in maximum monthly urban temperature fluctuations. Analysis reveals increasing trends in urban temperature fluctuations showing effect of Kathamndu industrializations. Forecast models also suggest future scenario with respect to occurrence of extreme temperature. The analysis carried out in this work would be useful for urban planners for sustainable future development, economists and environmentalists etc.


    • Effect of Internal Audit Attributes on the Quality of Financial Reporting in Musanze District.
      Original Research Article
      Country Rwanda
    • Pages 179-184
    • Joshua RUBIBI BIGEGE || Dr. Thomas TARUS
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The paper‟s purpose is to evaluate the effectiveness of internal auditor‟s independence on the quality of financial reporting of non-budget Agencies in Musanze District. The research employed a survey research design. The study administered 100 questionnaires randomly to respondents, 97 questionnaires were returned and analyzed. Data conducted by taking 50 non-budget agencies from sectors, schools, and health centers in Musanze District. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the findings revealed that auditors‟ independence has a statistically significant positive effect on quality of financial reporting of non-budget agencies in Musanze District. The study concluded that effective and efficient internal audit attributes can affect the quality of financial reports of non-budget agencies in Musanze District based on factors analyzed in the study such as auditors‟ independence. Thus, the quality of financial reporting depends strongly on the attributes internal audit.


    • Government Accounting Harmonization, the case of Mexico, the European Union and Peru
      Original Research Article
      Country Mexico
    • Pages 185-192
    • Vázquez Cid de León Carlos || Montesinos González Salvador || Ramírez Castillo Eric Amín || Vázquez Arango María de Lourdes
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • This research work addresses the Government Accounting Harmonization and its purpose, which is to establish the general criteria of Government Accounting and standardize the issuance of financial information by public entities. The objectives of Accounting Harmonization are: To facilitate decision-making; Homogeneity of financial information; Establishment of norms for the efficient management of public spending; Registration of operations in an automatic, harmonious way, specific to accounting operations, however the advances in Harmonization between Mexico, the European Union and Peru are compared, it should be noted that accountability and international standards are increasingly relevant issues In 2021, a document review method was used and the results that reflect differences between the progress status of Harmonization in each country are contrasted.


    • The International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) and the Government Accounting Conceptual Framework (MCCG) in Mexico
      Original Research Article
      Country Mexico
    • Pages 193-206
    • Vázquez Cid de León Carlos || Montesinos González Salvador || Ramírez Castillo Eric Amín || Vázquez Arango María de Lourdes
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • This research shows an overview of the current state of government accounting in Mexico, its objective is to present generalities and particularities of both the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) as well as the Conceptual Framework of Government Accounting ( MCCG), the harmonization of accounting in the international arena is very important, however it tends to be very broad, in the case of institutional collaborators they have to make use of this literature to comply with the law depending on the country in which that works, however an organizer is presented with the postulates and a route that synthesizes the theoretical content for its accounting application, from 2018 to 2021 there is current information to be applied in the work of presenting financial information, in this work a review was carried out This documentary is a descriptive research, the design was non-experimental-transversal, within the Results, a list of IPSAS and MCCG Postudalos is formulated.