Corruption is an issue that is affecting many countries in the world, and there are several approaches that have been found to effective depending on the other external factors. The Unites States has several anti-corruption approaches that were invested in countries of interest such as Afghanistan; however, these have failed dismally. The US government has spent over $70 million in different sectors that was intended to support anti-corruption initiative through the government, law enforcement, and journalists. However, there were several reports that were released indicated the lack of preparation and the strategic flaws in the approach taken by the United States. Afghanistan still poses a security risk to the United States, and public funding towards reconstruction of the country should take an evidence based approach that considers effective mechanisms applies in similar regimes. This paper evaluate the current framework of the procurement to preventing corruption by the United States and evidence based mechanisms by organizations that havebeen resistant to corruption.
Agritourism may be a new concept for people in Vidarbha region in eastern region of Maharashtra, but it is not new to the world. Even if we look at western belt of Maharashtra, we find the growing awareness and preference for awareness of agritourism. Considering the social aspect of agritourism and its great help to the farmers as a financial support, there is a need to create awareness for Agritourism in Vidarbha. Consumer adoption as a well established concept has sequential steps from awareness, interest, evaluation, trial and final adoption for usage of the product or service. For consumers in Vidarbha, need is to find out the status of initial two steps i.e. awareness and interest. To find out this status, researcher has conducted a survey making the research boundaries specifically confined to Nagpur considering Nagpur as a representative cluster of cities in Vidarbha. Efforts are done to find out awareness and preference (interest) for agritourism for the sector of weekend tourists in Nagpur city
Financial development is one of the issues in recent decades in order to achieve economic growth and development, as improve performance, especially in terms of oversight has led the government to curb corruption and to set rules and regulations. In most developing countries, the public sector plays an important role in the market. The aim of this study is to compare the situation between Iran and Norway during the period 1970 -2014 in the financial markets and the public. The results of the comparative two oil economies suggest that variables, including oil revenues share of GDP in the economy and how to deal with this income, has been affected the state and public of sector financial indicators examined in the two countries. Norway's economy has failed to manage this income, to help improve their financial situation. Aldo comparing the financial status of the situation, Iran has been more stable during the period under review. Besides, the financial indicators in Norway are more dynamic than Iran.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate how firm age and size affect the small and medium firm to move from the local to international market. Literature has strongly suggested that the firm age and firm size some of the key factors that influence internationalization of medium sized firms for many developing economies though little research has been done regarding the same for developing economies. An in depth survey was conducted with 73 Kenya Top 100 medium companies targeting the CEOs and/or key executives by the use of a questionnaire instrument. The data was analyzed by the use of Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) Version 21. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present data. The study found that if Kenyan medium sized firms would sustainably increase the size of their operation, as they age, this would increase theirreadiness to internationalize their operations. They would therefore achieve superior capability to maximize on any opportunity that might arise for doing business in foreign market.The study recommends that the Government of Kenya should provide a supportive environment that would enable medium firmsto grow and overcome the challenges of smallness which is a precursor to internationalization.
Welfare state retrenchment is widely seen as a highly unpopular endeavor and, therefore, as politically difficult to pursue. This assumption has underpinned most of the political science research on this issue, notably Paul Pierson‘s seminal contributions about the ‗new politics of the welfare state‘. Yet, the question remains why and under what circumstances cutbacks take place in highly developed welfare states despite these formidable political obstacles. This article reviews the literature on the politics of retrenchment, namely on the impact of socioeconomic problem pressure, political parties, political institutions, welfare state structures and ideas. Most authors agree that socio-economic problems – particularly domestic problems – contribute to an atmosphere of ‗permanent austerity‘ which inspires cutbacks. Moreover, according to most scholars, the extent of retrenchment possible depends on the specific institutional configuration of a political system and the path dependence of existing welfare state structures. The debate on the relevance of political parties and ideas, by contrast, is still far from settled. Further unresolved issues include the nature of the dependent variable in retrenchment studies. Also, the exact motives for cutbacks are theoretically still little understood, as are the political mechanisms through which they are realized. I argue that, because of the nature of these persisting issues, the pluralistic dialogue between different methods and approaches – as well as their combination – remains the most promising way forward in the study of welfare state politics.
Employees Loyalty has become critical to the management-employees bonding across organisations especially in the banking sectors of global economy. The lack of loyalty on the part of employees has been traced to change in leadership, therefore, this study studies the implications that leadership change have on employees loyalty. The banking sector of Rivers State was covered in this study as 131 sampled employees of the selected banks were studied using a 4point lykert scale closed ended questionnaire. The data gathered were analysed using the Pearson Moment correlations coefficient and the findings from the results derived reveals significant relationships amongst the attributes of the predictor tested on the measures of the criterion variable and conclusion as well as recommendation were drawn from the resultant findings amongst which are: leadership change causes strategic, cultural, policy and attitudinal changes in the organisations and these changes reflects a shift in the loyalty status of the affected employees in the banking sector. Therefore, better management of leadership change is advocated as corporate loyalty is primarily critical for sustenance of successful banking not individual leader loyalty.
In Tanzania e-commerce opportunities can be a meaningful approach for business firms to be able to compete with business enterprises with the lowest possible costs and international penetration. This study aims to analyze the application of e-commerce from the angle of value to riskanalysis on business processes in Tanzania. The methodology employed in the form of survey, where questionnaire from a sample of 132 companies in Dar-es-salaam were collected. The study provides new findings on the relationship between perceived value and perceived risk. There is still a positive correlation between the two variables, however, the Gap between them is not significant. This study has highlighted the practical importance of business enterprises to encompass e-commerce technologies to look at the broader picture. Benefits like cost reduction and profit maximization, increased efficient and effectiveness of operation, market expansion are likely to be gained with wider e-commerce usage. There are a couple of limitations to the study; Financial and time constraints, also, the research was only based in Tanzania using third party contacts.