An effective and efficient net working capital majorly contribute to commercial banks success as it forms part of a company’s short-term financing strategy. Efficiency of working capital is based on the principle of speeding up collections as quickly as possible and slowing down disbursements as slowly as possible. An effective working capital management system helps banks not only cover their financial obligations but also boost their earnings. The study sought to examine the effects of working capital which comprised of aspects current assets and current liabilities. This study is guided by two theories, namely; Free Cash Flow Hypothesis and the Agency theory. The study adopted the descriptive and explanatory research designs. The population of the current study comprised of all commercial banks thus a census survey method was adopted. This study relied on secondary data which was obtained from annual reports issued by the CBK Bank. The results of the study showed that there was positive linear relationship between net working capital and the dependent variable (corporate cash holding) and the model was statistically significant. The study used ANOVA to establish the significance of the regression model from which an f-significance value of p less than 0.05 was established. The findings of the analysis revealed that when the independent variables had a significant combined effect (R2 = 0.428) on corporate cash holding in the commercial banks in Kenya and could be used to predict future profitability. The study concludes that Net working capital has a significant relationship with cash held by commercial banks while Changes in banks characteristics over time are primarily responsible for the increase in cash holdings and therefore net working capital of firms drastically decreases and cash flows become riskier. It was recommended that the financial managers should focus on reducing the cash conversion cycle by investing more in net working capital.
Technology and Higher Education: What Works and what is the Future? Original Research Article Country United States
Technology has created many new educational models. This research presents a review of the literature on technology-assisted educational models, proposes new models based on existing research, and surveys over 5,000 college students, instructors, and business professionals regarding which model(s) did or could serve them best. Results show that students still prefer traditional technologies for their educational experience, and do not want that experience to become entirely online. However, there is evidence that online, virtual and interactive videos are appreciated for Content Delivery, online work for questions, homework, and course materials is appreciated for Content Practice, and online discussion boards and interaction are appreciated for Content Discussion.
Impact of Social Media Usage on Organisational Image Mediated by Customer Trust Original Research Article Country Malaysia
The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of social media usage (information search, marketing & branding and customer relations) on organizational image mediated by customer trust. A sample size of 243 respondents were selected using convenient sampling technique among those who are actively purchasing online platforms in Malaysia. The questionnaire with a 5 point Likert-Scale was used to collect the data. The data was analysed using structural equation modelling via AMOSE software. The result shows that social media usage has no significant impact on organizational image. Also social media usage has no significant impact on customer trust except information search of social media usage. However this study found that level of trust has a positive and significant impact on organizational image suggesting that when level of trust increases, the perceived organizational image also enhanced among the customers. Therefore managers and decision makers must ensure customer‟s level of trust is build and developed and maintained to improve organizational image. This research could improve further with the use of qualitative research approach by conducting interview or an observation, or can conduct an experimental research design where groups of respondents may be put under observation with different context. This could be more accurate than just expressing or rating a scale questionnaire. This will also enable researchers to avoid any baseness in completing a survey questionnaire. Also this research will enhance its result if focus on one particular industry where by identifying social media users regularly to respond the items included in the questionnaire. Also revising the social media usage items could further improve by using technology acceptance model variables.
The Influence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Environmental Performance, and Profitability on the Value of the Company Original Research Article Country Indonesia
Rina Mudjiyanti || Hardiyanto Wibowo || Tri Ardhianto
This study aims to determine the effect of corporate social responsibility, environmental performance, and profitability on firm value. The research period used was 2016-2018. The study uses the concept of Elkington (1997) which mentions three basic points for company sustainability namely environmental, social, and profit which are proxied by CSR, environmental performance, and profitability. The population in this study is companies listed in IDX 2016-2018 periods. The research sample was taken using purposive sampling method that obtained 36 company samples with 108 observational data consisting of companies in the manufacturing sector, the trade service sector and investment, the property and real estate sector, the mining sector, the agricultural sector and the infrastructure, utilities and transportation sectors, in this study using multiple regression analysis test. Based on the results of data analysis it can be concluded that: corporate social responsibility has no effect on firm value, environmental performance has a negative effect on firm value, profitability has a positive effect on firm value.
Managing Operational Risk using Bayesian Networks: A practical approach for the risk manager Original Research Article Country Singapore
Dr. Martin Leo || Dr. Suneel Sharma || Dr. K Maddulety
This paper provides a practical approach to construct and learn a Bayesian network model that will enable an operational risk manager communicate actionable operational risk information for informed decision making by senior managers. Bayesian networks and their application in operational risk management has been widely studied; however, literature and research has predominantly focused on their application in modeling and measuring operational risk for capital calculation purposes. We detail the approach to construct and learn a BN model, from an incident database, using the machine learning capabilities in the R package bnlearn. The modeling and the inference capabilities of the Bayesian Networks can be applied to business-as-usual risk management techniques such as loss analysis, scenario analysis, risk assessment, development of key risk indicators, and risk reporting.
Reactions of Indonesia Stock Market to Covid-19 Pandemic Original Research Article Country Indonesia
This study aims to examine negative responses to COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia in the stock market. Striking since March 2020, coronavirus has been really fast and unexpected, sparking concerns among investors particularly over conditions of stock market in Indonesia. Stock market reactions are manifested in Average Abnormal Return (AAR) and Cumulative Average Abnormal Return (CAAR). Samples were collected using purposive sampling method. Population of the study was all companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange and investors possessing securities account. This event study adopted market-adjusted model along with an observation period of 15 days, seven days prior to announcement of the first two cases of coronavirus in Indonesia and seven days after. Results indicate statistically significant abnormal return on certain days within the window period.
The Influence of Trade Unions on Promoting Industrial Relations in Zimbabwe Original Research Article Country Namibia
Martin Dandira || Maxwell Chufama || josphat Nyoni || Elias S.Kandjinga
The roles of trade unions in promoting industrial relations. The study aimed at establishing the roles of trade unions in industrial relations, to identify the challenges hindering the performance of the trade unions in industrial relations, to explore the extent to which the ZCTU is achieving its desired goals in industrial relations and find ways of improving the performance of trade unions in industrial relations in Zimbabwe in the COVID 19 era. Trade unions play important roles in industrial relations which include influencing government policy, collective bargaining, and representation, educating members, minimizing discrimination, and promoting industrial harmony. Empirical studies were done in Britain, Romania, Nigeria, Botswana, and locally showed that trade unions represent workers at the grassroots level, bargain for the interest of the workers, and ensure that there is a good relationship between workers and employees. The study revealed that the effectiveness of the ZCTU in Zimbabwe is being hampered by the economic crisis, loss of membership, restrictive labor legislation, victimization of activists, and political interference. Trade unions are important actors in industrial relations as they improve the working conditions of the employees but in developing countries, their operations are being curtailed by globalization changes and the economic crisis. The study recommends that the trade unions need to adapt to the changing environment, promote human rights and democracy, training officers and activists, form strategic partnerships and social alliances, intensive recruitment and training, and participating in job creation.
Increment lessons learned by sharing tacit knowledge in non-profit organizations Original Research Article Country Portugal
Focusing the study's focus on sharing tacit knowledge in non-profit organizations (NPOs), in Portugal and taking as a case study the Portuguese volunteer firefighter (FBs), we listed as objectives, the determination of the prevalence of lessons learned by sharing tacit knowledge and the identification of actions and measures for its promotion. A review of the literature on lessons learned and sharing of tacit knowledge allowed the identification of indicators that allowed the determination of its prevalence in the NPOs. A mixed methodology followed, where data collections were combined via interviews and questionnaires, which analysis of results made it possible to answer the established objectives.
It was possible to perceive the difference of opinions between firefighters and commanders, regarding the prevalence of lessons learned, being necessary to implement actions and measures that allow the construction of a collective vision of these organizations, on the part of all the stakeholders. It was also possible to create a performance matrix, with actions and measures for this purpose, which promotes an increase in the lessons learned by sharing tacit knowledge.
Effect of Enterpreneur and Firm Characteristics on the Business Success of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in North Central, Nigeria Original Research Article Country Nigeria
This study examined the effect of entrepreneur and firm characteristics on the Business success of small and medium scale enterprises in selected States in North Central, Nigeria. The researcher used primary data for the study from population of one hundred and fifty (150) registered small and medium scale enterprises in three (3) selected States in North Central, Nigeria. A questionnaire was used as the instrument of data collection. The data collected were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Also, the hypotheses of the study were tested using the probability value of the regression estimates. The result of the regression analysis indicates that Creativity (CRT) has a positive effect on the Business success of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in North Central Nigeria (SSM) and the effect is statistically significant (p <0.05). Self-confidence (SFC) has a negative effect on the Business success of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in North Central Nigeria (SSM) and the effect is not statistically significant (p >0.05). Firm size (FMS) has a positive effect on the Business success of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in North Central Nigeria (SSM) and the effect is statistically significant (p <0.05) and in line with a priori expectation. Profitability (PRF) has a positive effect on the Business success of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in North Central Nigeria (SSM) and the effect is statistically significant (p <0.05). It was concluded that all the variables of the study except self confidence have positive and significant effect on the Business success of small and medium scale enterprises in the study area. It was recommended among other that management of the small and medium scale enterprises should ensure that all the strategies are put in place to boost the profit of the enterprise, become creative in its business approach so as to become successful.
Influence of Selected Government Regulations on Implementation of Public Infrastructure Projects in Kenya: A Case of Rural Electrification and Renewable Energy Corporation, Nairobi County, Kenya Original Research Article Country Kenya
Daniel Mutongi Amuyunzu || Johnbosco Mutuku Kisimbii
The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of selected government regulations on implementation of public infrastructure projects by the Rural Electrification and Renewable Energy Corporation (REREC) in Nairobi county Kenya. The study adopted descriptive research design with a target population of 481 permanent employees of REREC, the study settled for a sample size of 140 respondents obtained using stratified random sampling method. Research questionnaires were administered to the employees at REREC headquarters within Nairobi. Descriptive statistics involved frequency distribution, percentages, mean and standard deviation. Inferential analysis involved OLS regression. The regression analysis revealed that financial regulations, construction standards and codes and competence of project team had a significant positive influence on implementation of public infrastructure projects whereas environmental regulations and county government licensing exhibited a negative influenceon implementation of public infrastructure projects. The study therefore concluded that the selected government regulations considered under the study had a significant influence on implementation public infrastructure projects by REREC. Based on the findings, the study recommends that the management of REREC should ensure that they do not contravene any of the environmental regulation. Secondly, the study recommends that REREC must continue to invest in new construction technologies and observe standards recommended in the construction codes and standards books. Thirdly, the study suggests that the management of REREC must adhere to the Public Financial Management Act and the Public Procurement and Assets Disposal Act. The study also recommends that the county government should adopt standard licensing procedures. Finally, the study recommends that the management at REREC should continue recruiting highly qualified employees for its vacant positions.
Culture and Corruption: Plagiarism, Wasta and Bribery In the MENA Region Original Research Article Country Jordan
Individuals in different cultures may have diverse understandings of right and wrong, based on different worldviews. While the west predominantly shares a guilt-innocence culture, the east largely conforms to the shame-honor culture, and Africa (and parts of South America and Asia) is linked to the fear-power culture. Thus, justice, ethics, right and wrong, and corruption may be perceived differently in each culture. With data collected in a focus group with 11 participants from Lebanon, Egypt, and Algeria, the purpose of this study was to shed light on the role of culture in allowing and normalizing corruption in the MENA region. We found that in shame-honor cultures keeping relationships is the honorable and therefore the right thing to do. Therefore, culture may contribute to normalizing corruption when the value of keeping a relationship is considered above other values. While in guilt-innocence cultures values are predominantly determined by rules, in shame-honor cultures values are determined by relationships. Therefore, in shame-honor cultures, individuals tend to accept plagiarism, wasta, and bribery as long as it keeps the relationships. The paper ends with recommendations for research and practice
Decision to Invest Using Markowitz Model on LQ 45 Index Companies for the Period 2015 – 2019 Original Research Article Country Indonesia
The purpose of this study was to find viable shares in the optimal portfolio as well as the proportion of funds from each of these stocks formed with the Markowitz Model. This research method uses literature research design. Data collection techniques are documentation. While the analysis of research data is started with the processing and preparation of data until interpreting the meaning of data. The population in this study was all companies listed in the LQ Index 45 as of December 31, 2019. While the sample is Companies that never exited the LQ 45 Index during the period 2015-2019. The results of this study showed that the shares of LQ Index 45 companies in the period 2015 – 2019 which formed an optimal portfolio based on the Markowitz model of 150 stock portfolios. From the overall weighting obtained the results of a portfolio of shares 40% ADRO & 60% BBCA, 50% ADRO & 50% BBCA and 60% ADRO & 40% BBCA are optimal portfolios for aggressive investor profiles, furthermore 40% BBCA stock portfolio & 60% UNVR, 50% AKRA & 50% BBCA, 60% BBCA & 40% GGRM are optimal portfolios for conservative investor profiles. While the stock portfolio of 40% BBCA & 60% BBTN, 50% BBCA & 50% BBTN and 60% BBCA & 40% BBTN is the optimal portfolio for the profile of moderate investors.
Railway Land Transportation Business Strategy in Indonesia Original Research Article Country Indonesia
Railroad is one of the modes of transportation that has special characteristics and advantages. This is because the train is something that is very practical for Indonesian people in general. In addition to saving energy, trains are seen as a means of transportation for all levels of society, not only serving the upper room, providing trains also provides for the lower middle class. Data were collected using a questionnaire issued by 127 respondents provided by the Rantauprapat Great Railway Station. The data analyzed were analyzed using SEM Amos. From the results of this study the following conclusions can be drawn; service quality variables (service quality) directly affect business strategy, product attribute variables (product attributes) do not bind directly to business strategies, business strategy variables are directly bound to customer satisfaction and product attributes are directly related to customer satisfaction through business strategies.
The Role of Spiritual Intelligence in Moderating the Relationship between Auditor competency on Audit Quality Original Research Article Country Indonesia
Audit quality is a complex and difficult concept to understand, so there are often errors in determining its nature and quality. This study aims to examine the effect of auditor competence on audit quality. In addition, this study also examines the role of spiritual intelligence in moderating the relationship between auditor competence and audit quality. The research sample used in this study were 36 auditors of the State Audit Board of the Republic of Indonesia, Representatives of Maluku Province. The analytical tool used in this research is Partial Least Square.
The results showed that the competence of auditors had a positive and significant effect on audit quality. The results of this study also prove that the relationship between auditor competence and audit quality will be stronger if moderated by spiritual intelligence.