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September-October 2018

  • Design Model of Seaweed Bank as an Alternative to Rural Microfinance Institutions
    Original Research Article
    Country Indonesia
  • Pages 01-06
  • Ine Fausayana
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • This study aims to create a design model of Seaweed Bank. Seaweed banks are designed by combining the financing model of Cooperatives and Banking, but both the initial and subsequent deposits are not in cash, but in the form of commodities (dried seaweed).The study was conducted from 2017 to May 2018 (four seaweed seasons). The results showed that farmers’ revenue (with set aside 5 percent per Planting Season of total revenue) amounted to US$ 433 per year per farmer or US$ 107.161 from 300 farmers. During the famine season, farmers no longer borrow funds from patron but farmers can take it from Seaweed Bank. Farmers’ need of seed that can be provided as much as US$ 96.435 or as many as 296 ropes per farmer and still remaining balance of saving as much as US$ 199.239 in the village. At the normal price US$ 0,942 per kg of dried seaweed there is an addition to the total seaweed value as much as US$ 199.239, which will impact the expected year-end saving to be as much as US$ 18.430



  • The Determınants of Capıtal Structure: an Empırıcal Study of The Lısted Fırms on Bıst (Borsa Istanbul) Servıce Sector
    Original Research Article
    Country Turkey
  • Pages 07-20
  • Tuba Gulcemal
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of firms listed service sector on BIST(Borsa Istanbul) and the adjustment process towards this target. The econometric analysis employs the Generalized Method of Moments estimators (GMM-Sys, GMM difference) techniques that controls for unobserved firm-specific effects and the endogeneity problem. The findings of the paper suggest that firms have target leverage ratios and they adjust to them relatively fast. Consistent with the predictions of capital structure theories and the findings of the empirical literature, the results of this paper suggest that size, assets tangibility, profitability, growth opportunity except earnings volatility have significant effects on the capital structure choice of hotels and restaurants.The capital structure or leverage is measured by total debt ratio. Analysis results indicates that firms with high profits, sizable, high fixed assets ratio and high total sales and more growth opportunities tend to have relatively less debt in their capital structures.



  • An Empirical Study of Attitude Towards Entrepreneurial Intention among Pakistan and China Agricultural Graduates in Agribusiness
    Original Research Article
    Country China
  • Pages 21-34
  • Ghulam RazaSargani || Zhou Deyi || Habibullah Magsi || Sanaullah Noonari || Mumtaz Ali Joyo || Syed Muhammad Muslim Kazmi
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • The purpose of this paperis toinvestigate the difference of attitudes towards entrepreneurial intention (EI) of Agriculturalgraduates in agribusiness, this cannot be realized without harnessing the quality human resource base of the youth, especially graduates from agricultural faculties, Pakistani and ChineseAgri-students used to identify thepossible differences between potential entrepreneurs from these distinct national contexts. The data includes set of agricultural universities being a surveyed (n= 640)was collected in 2016. The Descriptive and Binary Logistic Regressionwas employed in order to analyze through SPSS 25.00to investigate the effect of individual's attitudes on EIin agribusiness, independent variables include individual's perceived capabilities, the ability torecognize business opportunities, entrepreneurial network, risk perceptions as well as range of socio-cultural attitudes. The findings support the relationship between an individual's attitudes and theirentrepreneurial intention. Individual's capability, opportunity recognition, networks andrange of socio-cultural perceptions all influence EI significantly also, age, gender, the educationalbackground of students, mediamotivation and attention, self-realization status, practical agricultural experience and risks perception were found to have a significantinfluence on students' intention to take up agribusiness as a source of future self-employment avenue upon graduation.



  • Operational Risk Management
    Original Research Article
    Country Portugal
  • Pages 35-61
  • Patricia Pereira || Eduardo Sá e Silva || Adalmiro Pereira
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • This work shows the operational risk management and the importance of implementing an appropriate structure of risk management. In order to contextualize the issue was addressed the concept of risk and operational risk and the various risk categories and made the frame in the various Basel Accords. It focused on Basel II that has innovated dealing with operational risk, hitherto forgotten. In this context it was discussed the various risk assessment methods: basic, standard and advanced. The theme is organized so that there is a common thread that culminates in risk management presenting the guidelines of the BIS in this regard and a model of a risk management framework.



  • Implementing and Monitoring the HR Operating Plan: A Conceptual Framework for Performance Measurement and Management
    Original Research Article
    Country USA
  • Pages 62-71
  • John Edward Jarvis, DBA
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • This paper presents a proposed conceptual model for implementing and monitoring performance of the HR operating plan based on the resource-based view of the firm (RBV) theory and systems theory and thinking (ST&T). The proposed model should provide organizational and human resources leaders, as well as organizational development practitioners with the ability to develop the organizations’ internal environment as a driver of competitive advantage, including recognition of how the whole organization system and the environment influence subsystem components. This proposed conceptual model bridges a gap in literature related to defining an aligned human resources performance measurement and management system and the subsequent link to organizational performance.



  • Negotiable instruments and the Nigeria Financial System
    Original Research Article
    Country Nigeria
  • Pages 72-83
  • ONUORAH, A.C. (Ph.D)
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • This study focused on the Perception of negotiable instruments in the Nigeria Financial System. It seeks to provide insight into the perceived perception on the use of negotiable instruments. A total of 210 bank customers participated in this study. The descriptive survey research method was adopted. Simple percentage was used to analyze the questionnaire responses while t-test statistical technique was used to test the formulated null hypotheses. Findings revealed that literacy affected the use of negotiable instruments, though; negotiable instruments are widely used, but the acceptance level is however very low. It was also revealed from the findings that there is peace and security in the use of negotiable instruments. Findings also revealed that there is risk reduction on the use of negotiable instrument on businesses when compared to cash payment system. Significant difference existed between the use of cash and promissory notes in the Nigeria financial system. The lack of trust and acceptance of negotiable instruments, made the use of cash as basis for settling payments most acceptable because it creates liquidity though at very high risk. Finally, the researcher recommended among others that the government should discourage the use of cash as source of settling payments in the Nigeria financial system while effort should be made to promote the cashless policy in lieu of cash payments.



  • Influence of Sorghum Farmers 'Access to Communication Channels on Their Access to Climate Variability Adaptation Strategies in the Semi-Arid Zone of Cameroon
    Original Research Article
    Country Cameroon
  • Pages 84-94
  • SALE ABOU || MADI ALI ||WAKPONOU Anselme
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • This article addresses the problem of the performance of communication channels in influencing farmers’ perception of climate variability and their access to climate variability adaptation strategies. It aims to compare the influence of sorghum farmers' access to ICTs and interpersonal channels on their climate variability perception and their access to adaptation strategies, in order to make recommendations for improving their resilience to climate variability. The stratified random sampling method was used to select study sites, which consist of twenty (20) villages, and the sample, which consists of six hundred (600) family farms households’ heads. Primary data were collected using a mixed survey questionnaire (closed and semi-open). Descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage) were used to analyze the sorghum farmers’ climate variability perception and their access to adaptation strategies. The correlations between sorghum farmers' access to communication channels (ICTs, interpersonal channels) and the their climate variability perception, the correlations between the sorghum farmers’ climate variability perception and their access to adaptation strategies, as well as that correlations between the sorghum farmers' access to communication channels and their access to the adaptation strategies were analyzed using the chi-square test.



  • System Adoption: Socio-Technical Integration
    Original Research Article
    Country Saudi Arabia
  • Pages 95-107
  • Dr. Mohammed Hokroh || Dr. Gill Green
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • In this case study we identify the factors that influence the adoption of a new system in a major company in Saudi Arabia. We develop a theoretical framework to help derive better understanding of system adoption via socio-technical integration. We formulation of 14 hypotheses that were tested via a survey of 42 system users. Management support and change management were found to be significant factors influencing system adoption. As a result, the 14 null hypotheses were rejected due to their statistical significance (p-value < 0.05). Discussions and recommendations for future research are discussed.



  • Corrosion Behaviour of Annealed 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel in Sulphuric Acid Environment
    Original Research Article
    Country Nigeria
  • Pages 108-112
  • Victor A. Adedayo
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • This paper presents a study that investigates the corrosion behavior of annealed 2205 duplex stainless steel in sulphuric acid environment. Duplex 2205 stainless steel black bar in ASTM A276 was obtained and annealed in solite furnace for 45 minutes. A control sample which was not heat treated was also prepared. The annealed and the control samples which were metallographically prepared were then analyzed for corrosion behavior in sulphuric acid using potentiodynamic test/analysis. The potentiodynamic polarization plot generated showed that the annealed samples exhibit less corrosion resistance than the untreated samples, indicating that annealing heat treatment reduces the corrosion resistance of 2205 duplex stainless steel in sulphuric acid.



  • Evaluvation, propagation and study of life cycle in vitro of Morchella esculanta
    Original Research Article
    Country India
  • Pages 113-120
  • Aasif Majeed Sofi || Dr.poornima Srivastava || Dr Tajamul rafi
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • Among the edible mushrooms, Morchella esculenta (Pers.) is a highly prized mushroomwhich consists of a short stalk and a conical, pitted, hollow pileus. It is commonly known as amorel or sponge mushroom, or gucchi, etc. It belongs to the class Ascomycetes, order Pezizalesand family Morchellaceae. It is found throughout the world. In jammu and kashmir, it is found in various forests regions under pine vegetation. It is therapeutic in nature; thereforeits medicinal and biochemical properties are under investigation throughout the world, especiallyin regard to treating the hazardous diseases such as cancer, tumors, etc. The present in vitro studywas conducted for the first time. The three media soil and soil extracts Agar and LuriaAgar were used. Mycellial growth was obtained on all these media, but the LA medium showedbetter growth. Microscopic studies had shown pigmentation is most likely due to the secondarymycelium. Among these mycelium ascogenous hyphae are produced that may lead to theformation of ascogonium and antheridium with the dilated tips. The compact mass ofprosenchymatous and pseudoparenchyma tissues was observed.



  • A Study on Helping Attitude among Startups
    Original Research Article
    Country Malaysia
  • Pages 121-134
  • Mohammad Noorizzuddin Nooh || DrUmmiSalwa Ahmad Bustamam
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • Helping others is considered and sometimes expected to be a voluntary act. This behavior can be characterized as a helpful behavior that does not expect something in return. In general, the behavior of helping others would create a conducive environment especially when being instilled at an early stage of entrepreneurial journey. The study was conducted on 115 startup companies owners who participated under Tunas UsahawanBeliaBumiputera (TUBE 5.0) organized by SME Corporation, an agency under the Ministry of International Trade and Industries, Malaysia in early March 2018. The rate of return on the questionnaires was 48%. The objective is to find and compare the helping attitude of startups based on several demographic factors. The sample was selected through purposive sampling technique. The researchers used the Helping Attitude Scale (HAS) by Gary S. Nickell. It is a scale with 20-item to measure respondents’ belief, feelings, and behaviors associated with helping others. The data was analyzed using Cross tabulation analysis. Based on the simple analyses, it is revealed that male startup owners possess better helping attitude than their female counterparts. Further analysis might give the researchers and the audience a better understanding and insights on this issue.



  • Factors Contributing to Financial Distress in Commercial Banks of Kenya
    Original Research Article
    Country Kenya
  • Pages 135-150
  • Odhiambo Simon Peter Ochieng
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • Commercial banks could provide important benefits to economies and facilitate the objectives of financial liberalization, by boosting competition in banking markets, stimulating improvements in services to customers and expanding access to credit, especially to domestic small and medium-scale businesses. But the attainment of these benefits has been jeopardized because commercial banks have been vulnerable to financial distress. Substantial numbers of banks have failed, mainly because of non-performing loans. Poor loan quality has its roots in the informational problems which afflict financial markets, and which are at their most acute in developing countries, in particular problems of moral hazard and adverse selection. The Kenyan financial sector plays major roles in the country in promoting economic growth and development. However, financial distress is one the challenges that is hindering commercial banks from continuing contributing according to their potential to the GDP wellness. Some of the banks such as Imperial bank limited, Chase bank and Dubai Bank have been put under statutory management of late. For the purpose of attempting to unfold the issues of major concern, it was necessary to assess the factors contributing to financial distress in commercial banks. The specific objectives of this study were based on financial leverage, liquidity, credit risks and capital adequacy. It was further guided by relevant theories; modern portfolio theory, agency theory, pecking order theory and cash management theory.



  • Social network and family lending: evidence from rural areas in China
    Original Research Article
    Country China
  • Pages 151-164
  • Chaowei Li
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • This paper systematically study relationship between social network and credit constraints under background of financial dualism in the countryside. The survey of China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) in 2014, as an example, is used in this work. The results of the empirical analysis show that social networks can significantly increase the financing ability of formal finance and informal finance in the rural areas. The more richer the social network for farmers, the more higher they have obtained financial loans to formal financial and informal. The impact on the borrowing of friends is higher than the impact of bank lending in the social network of rural areas. The conclusions indicate that the credit market of rural areas from china, an imperfect credit system, should fully exert an important role of social network in the informal system for alleviated credit constraints of countryside better.



  • The Role of Small and Medium Enterprises in Economic Development, Case of Egypt.
    Original Research Article
    Country Saudi Arabia
  • Pages 165-173
  • Tamer G. I. Mansour || khairy H. Eleshmawiy || Mahmoud A. Abdelazez || Salah S. Abd El-Ghani
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • Small and medium Enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in the modern economy; the research aims to identify the role of small and medium enterprises in the economic development in the Arab Republic of Egypt and identify the most important problems and obstacles facing these projects , The results show that, Egypt has 2.5 million small, medium and micro enterprises, representing 99% of the total non-agricultural projects, about 78% of these projects did not receive any banking facilities, The performance SMEs is very weak in terms of export to foreign markets. SMEs can contribute in the process of accelerating development because it does not require huge investments at the same time, and is able to increase employment and mobilize small individual savings, as well as help in the preparation of technical cadres. It also enables the development of exports, including the acquisition of foreign currency and thus improving the balance of payments of developing countries, in addition to their contribution to the formation of a balanced industrial sector that serves the national economy, However Small and medium enterprises in Egypt face many problems that limit the ability to develop them. This sector is still suffering from basic obstacles such as difficulty obtaining finance and guarantees, and many other difficulties related to the inappropriate business environment, laws and regulations, poor infrastructure and banking so that Egyptian government must put a clear approach and specific objectives for the development of these projects.



  • Mergers and Acquisitions in the Context of Globalization
    Original Research Article
    Country Portugal
  • Pages 174-185
  • Lindiana Mendes de Araújo || Reigiany Marta da Silva || Eduardo Sá e Silva || Adalmiro Pereira
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • The delivery process consisted in the deregulation of local markets and international trends, which allowed the emergence of the phenomenon "globalization". This process has resulted in the restructuring of companies that are considered in the expansion of business, the level of competitiveness, expansion in the market of operations, technological adaptations and strategies; Mergers and Acquisition (M& A) characteristics operations. However, the main objective is to have priority in information promotion policies and initiatives to improve business conditions. The objective of this article is to address the M& A theme in the context of globalization, seeking to answer the following question: what are the results obtained in the process of restructuring and operating M& A in the telecommunications company Oi S / A between the year of its creation and by the year 2016? To all that the literature review, literature studies, literature, literature studies, non-literature literature, pages, semantic studies, about the theme, being a bibliographic and descriptive research. The study demonstrates that not always the processes of the frequency and license are advantageous to the parties related, due to character complexes that involve such operations. These groups can be supported in their search, mainly in studies on the market of action, differences in quotations and payments, employment opportunities in the societies involved.



  • Research on Income Structure and Family Happiness of Chinese Residents
    Original Research Article
    Country China
  • Pages 186-195
  • Jiale Wan || Chaowei Li
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • This paper uses Chinese micro survey data to construct a sort selection model. By considering the income level and urban-rural differences, the heterogeneous relationship and influence mechanism between income structure and happiness are systematically studied, and the results of the study pass the test of robustness. The empirical results show that the coverage of operating income is wider, the impact on the happiness of low and middle income families is more significant, and the income of business income and happiness is "U" type; wage income is only certain for the happiness of middle-income families. The significant influence, the relationship shows a "U" type; the transfer income is more likely to affect high-income families, and the relationship between income and happiness is inverted "U" type; property income is not statistically significant under the above circumstances. The policy meaning of this paper is: to improve the happiness of residents, starting from the income level and income structure, focusing on improving the family's operating income and property income.



  • The Effect of Market Orientation to Achieve Competitive Advantage
    Original Research Article
    Country Indonesia
  • Pages 196-206
  • Rusdianto || Rully Armanto || Aliming Bassi
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • The purpose of this study is to find out the market orientation to achieve competitive advantage. Business people continue to find ways and strategies to be able to withstand the changes in the business environment, by always trying to understand and understand the needs and desires of consumers. Along with the development of the business world, directly or indirectly greatly affect the performance of the company so that competition between companies also increases. The unit of analysis in this research is hotels and deposits in Palembang-Indonesia City. The results of the study show that the market orientation to achieve membership is significantly different. Furthermore, it was found that in order to achieve competitive advantage, one must understand the competitive procedures for competing surveys in hotels and restaurants in the city of Palembag.



  • Poka–Yoke – solution to human errors in the production process
    Original Research Article
    Country Slovak Republic
  • Pages 207-213
  • Peter Malega
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • Poka-yoke is a quality assurance technique developed by Japanese manufacturing engineer Shigeo Shingo. The aim of Poka-Yoke is to eliminate defects in a product by preventing or correcting mistakes as early as possible. Poka- yoke has been used most frequently in production environments. Production defects or errors are always the key concerns of any production industry. The success of any organization depends on the quality of product especially right product produced.



  • The Effect of Human Resources Competencevalue of Education Financial Reporting Information High in Palembang City
    Original Research Article
    Country Indonesia
  • Pages 214-222
  • Wiwin Winarsih || Eka Maryantini || Triana Agustini
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the competence of human resources that affect an employee's financial reporting to be part of the management process must have three competencies, namely technical competence, human relations competence and conceptual competence. So that the financial statements have a very important meaning because it is a form of accountability in carrying out its activities during a performance-based budget year. The submitted financial statements are required to be timely, complete / complete, valid, and accountable which are prepared based on accounting principles. The unit of analysis in this study is the financial institution of universities in Palembang-Indonesia. The results show that the competence of human resources that affect an employee's financial reporting affects the value of financial reporting significantly. Furthermore, it was found that financial reporting could change because of the human resource survey survey at universities in Palembang.



  • The Importance of the Managerial Abilities in the Development of Automotive Embedded Software in Mexico
    Original Research Article
    Country Mexico
  • Pages 223-2234
  • PhD. Ilia Violeta Cázares Garrido || MSA. Mauro Hernández Castro
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • Computers have transformed our lives; they have changed the way the humans perceive and interact with the world; however, computers do not act by their own, all of them require of commands to work, called software. Creating software requires trained and specialized personnel in the field, such as Managers, which must have skills that allow them to successfully coordinate the development of projects. This research aims to show the abilities that senior management has and which of these are more frequently exhibit in companies that develop automotive embedded software in Mexico, all this in the opinion of the Project Leaders.